Human rights is an area study with which scholars from many disciplines are engaged and because of that, there are many definitions. Generally speaking, and perhaps more from the perspective of law and politics, the idea of human rights refers to sets of expectations requiring the State to do certain things for and not do certain things to people under its control.
What these things are remains controversial.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, for instance, lists more than 30 rights. However, most governments, including the most democratic and liberal ones, do not adhere or honor all the rights included in that documents.
Six core treaties were derived from this declaration, and, again, most governments resist adhering to these treaties even after having ratified them.