What human right crimes were committed in Yemen since 2015, who committed them, and who were the victims?
According to NGOs, the war launched by Saudi Arabia in 2015 resulted in numerous wars crimes, crimes and crimes against humanity, including repeated killing of civilians by air strikes, punishing sanctions, and disproportionate use of force, among other violations. According to Human Rights Watch, an international NGO, since the war began, coalition forces have regularly violated international humanitarian law through unlawful airstrikes which targeted civilians and civilian infrastructure including mosques, hospitals, schools, homes, and markets, the use of banned cluster munitions, engaging in a pattern of enforced disappearances, arbitrary detention and torture of perceived political opponents and security threats, and the regular blocking of food, fuel, and medical supplies from reaching Houthi controlled areas. Excerpts from Human Rights Watch Report:
The numbers we put forward in 2015 seem almost quaint now. Nearly six years later, the Armed Conflict and Event Data Project estimates that 112,000 people have died from the hostilities, including 12,000 civilians. Millions more suffer, or have perished, from hunger caused by the Saudi-led coalition’s blockade and the Houthis’ massive restrictions on aid delivery, a situation that’s been exacerbated in recent months by COVID-19. The crimes occurring in Yemen are serious — and the responsible parties demonstrably unwilling or unable to address them. The most recent report by the United Nations Group of Eminent and International Regional Experts on Yemen described “an acute accountability gap” and recommended that the UN Security Council refer the situation in Yemen to the International Criminal Court.In terms of who is responsible, NGOs think that not only are the parties directly involved, such as Saudi Arabia, and UAE, but also their Western allies:
The United States and United Kingdom both offered logistical and intelligence support for the coalition throughout the war. Both countries have been supplying weapons and providing military and diplomatic support to the Saudi-led coalitions. Additionally, both countries have long standing economic ties with Saudi Arabia which might explain the cooperation. The US began its involvement in the conflict in 2015 with the view that the American weapons, training and intelligence would simply assist the Saudis in avoiding more civilian casualties. The UK has been intimately involved in supplying arm to Saudi Arabia despite a court ruling deeming it illegal in the face of continuous human rights violations. As a result of the conflict at 12,000 civilians have been killed, primarily due to coalition bombings, although the actual death toll is believed to be much higher. The Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights has documented that roughly 20,000 civilians have been killed in fighting and Amnesty International states that it is estimated that over 233,000 civilians have died due to the humanitarian conditions created by the conflict by the end of 2019. In addition, over 3.6 million people have been displaced by the conflict while another 24 million Yemenis are in need of humanitarian assistance and over 2 million are facing critical food insecurity due in part to the Coalition’s deliberate policy of blocking food, medicine, and fuel from reaching Houthi controlled areas.Sources: https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/09/21/us-war-crimes-yemen-stop-looking-other-way https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2020/country-chapters/yemen https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/09/1072012 https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2015/09/yemen-the-forgotten-war/ https://www.reuters.com/article/yemen-security-un-int/possible-war-crimes-in-yemen-fuelled-by-arms-flows-from-west-iran-u-n-idUSKBN2601NZ https://www.washingtonpost.com/national-security/un-report-calls-for-alleged-war-crimes-in-yemen-to-be-referred-to-international-criminal-court/2020/09/10/3eb69194-f369-11ea-9279-45d6bdfe145f_story.html https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-51488741 (Yemen war: Saudi-led coalition forces face trials over violations) https://www.cato.org/commentary/those-who-destroyed-yemen-must-be-prosecuted-war-crimes https://www.globalr2p.org/countries/yemen/ (18,500+ civilians killed or maimed in coalition airstrikes since March 2015)